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Scientific Model: Chemical World

Year 10 Science

Finding Resources in Oliver


Here are some books that you may find useful during your studies.  Search the Bennies catalogue Oliver for more, or browse the Non-fiction collection NFS.




Chemical bonding, any of the interactions that account for the association of atoms into moleculesionscrystals, and other stable species that make up the familiar substances of the everyday world. When atoms approach one another, their nuclei and electrons interact and tend to distribute themselves in space in such a way that the total energy is lower than it would be in any alternative arrangement. If the total energy of a group of atoms is lower than the sum of the energies of the component atoms, they then bond together and the energy lowering is the bonding energy.


HydrocarbonHydrocarbon, any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. They serve as fuels and lubricants as well as raw materials for the production of plasticsfibresrubbers, solvents, explosives, and industrial chemicals.


Chemical ReationChemical reaction, a process in which one or more substances, the reactants, are converted to one or more different substances, the products. Substances are either chemical elements or compounds. A chemical reaction rearranges the constituent atoms of the reactants to create different substances as products.

You Tube

In this episode, we look at hot the atoms of non-metals bond together with covalent bonds to form molecules, introduce electron dot diagrams and structural formulae, explain how the electron configuration of an atom affects the number of bonds it can make, and finally introduce the topic of organic chemistry.

In this program we look at covalent bonding. A short summary as to why bonding occurs is presented before viewers witness how electrons are shared in covalent compounds. We discuss how the geometry of molecules is predicted by the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, the two types of weak forces of attraction between molecules, dipole interactions and dispersion forces, and covalent network solids which are formed from carbon atoms. Examples of network solids are addressed including diamond, graphite and fullerenes. With the assistance of animated graphics, this program provides viewers with a wonderful introduction to chemical bonding.

In this program students will see how chemical compounds are placed into groups so that they may be studied easily. Acids and bases are explored, emphasising their nature and common everyday uses. Carbon compounds are discussed. Colourful animations, vivid graphics, and live action footage help bring compounds to life for students. Other terminology used includes: acid, base, pH, salt, carbon, organic, and hydrocarbon.

Students see that chemical bonds are the key to understanding how elements combine. The differences between ionic and covalent bonds are clearly presented using vivid graphics and dynamic footage. See how valence electrons interact among atoms to form compounds, and learn how simple Lewis structures can help describe how easily an element will react. Students explore the significance of the arrangement of the elements and are shown how to predict the behaviour of an element from its position on the periodic table. Includes a look at some of the many patterns found in periods and groups of elements that combine to create the world around us.


Khan Academy

Carbon and Hydrocarbons Carbon isn’t a difficult element to spot in your daily life. For instance, if you’ve used a pencil, you’ve seen carbon in its graphite form. Similarly, the charcoal briquettes on your barbeque are made out of carbon, and even the diamonds in a ring or necklace are a form of carbon (in this case, one that has been exposed to high temperature and pressure).

Ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds There are three major types of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, and metallic. Ionic bonds form due to the transfer of an electron from one atom to another. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms.

Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds between atoms are formed or broken. The substances that go into a chemical reaction are called the reactants, and the substances produced at the end of the reaction are known as the products.