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Ancient Architecture : Ancient Egypt

10 Elective History




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Journal of Egyptian Architecture

Case Study

Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, among the largest and most famous of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza. 



Terminologies in Egyptian Architecture


Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza—are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society. Though pyramids were built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century A.D., the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and continued until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich and glorious past.

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also known as the Pyramid of Khufu, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Its sides climb at an angle of slightly less than 52 degrees, rising to a summit of 480 feet. But how did they manage to manoeuvre 2.5 tonne blocks to such an incredible height without the crane or the block and tackle system? It was a challenge to the ancient Egyptians and still remains a mystery to modern archaeologists.

Archeologist Yukinori Kawae is leading an interdisciplinary approach to studying the Egyptian pyramids by combining computer science, 3-D data, and the latest technology to help decode how and why the pyramids were built.

Just because something is difficult doesn’t mean it’s impossible. Over the past centuries, archaeologists, historians, and engineers have reconstructed a great deal of the technology and science used to build the Egyptian pyramids. This week we look at ancient Egyptian mathematics, building techniques, tools, and culture to reconstruct the Great Pyramid’s construction.


Travel back in time to Ancient Egypt, a civilisation that began along the Nile River more than 5,000 years ago. From the building of the pyramids and temples to their vast trading system, these early people did much to advance civilisation. Their intricate system of writing symbols and letters - hieroglyphics - mystified archaeologists until the discovery and translation of the Rosetta Stone. Children will learn about the importance of the Nile in daily life, the lives of kings, craftsmen and farmers, and the legacy of Egyptian art and architecture that still inspires people today.

Protecting Ancient Heritage eBook

Ancient History Encyclopedia

The pyramids are the most recognizable symbol of ancient Egypt. Even though other civilizations, such as the Maya or the Chinese, also employed this form, the pyramid in the modern day is synonymous in most people's minds with Egypt

Egyptian Architecture


The architecture of Ancient Egypt - a country of two parts, Upper and Lower Egypt - reflected two fundamental characteristics of Egyptian culture. First, the belief that life on earth was merely a brief interlude compared with the eternal afterlife to come. Second, the fact that Egypt was a theocracy, whose King (or Pharaoh) was worshipped as a God, with absolute powers: a ruler who owned a large chunk of Egypt's land and much of its resources.

Facts and Details


 In ancient Egypt trees were scarce so wood was not widely used as a building material. Mud, clay, rock and reed were the only materials that were in abundance.