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Year 11 Biology- Depth Study Organisation of Living Things: Temperature

Year 11 Biology

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State Library NSW

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Changes in temperature in the natural environment of plants affect both their functioning and their growth. Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is just as important for plant metabolism as it is for animals. Plants respond to changes in light, water availability and temperature, all of which are linked since heat is often associated with light (for example, the radiant energy of sunlight). Most plants have a growth season and life cycle that follow the seasonal temperature variations of their environment. Low availability of water may also be associated with very cold temperatures since frozen water (ice and snow) is not available for use by plants. Temperatures above 40°C may cause damage to proteins and those above 75°C to chlorophyll pigment within the plant. Since plants cannot move into the shade- they tend to have stronger physiological and structural adaptations.

Covers how temperature affects a wide range of plant processes. Includes brief discussions about DIF, growing degree days, sugar/starch conversions, seed germination, vernalization, dormancy, and temperature related plant injuries

Frontiers in Plant Science

                

Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine.

Hatfield (public domain)

Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant pro-ductivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production.

Science Project

For farmers and growers it is important to know the best conditions for the growth of their products. In the past, just by experience most farmers and growers learned what is the best season for planting certain plants. With modern technologies and production of plants in green houses and other controlled environments, we have lost part of our dependencies to seasons and weather conditions.

Onwuka (public domain)

Soil temperature varies seasonally and daily which may result from changes in radiant energy and energy changes taking place through the soil surface. It governs the soil physiochemical and biological processes and also influences the interspheric processes of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the soil.

Wang et al. (password protected)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and global mean temperature are expected to be significantly higher by the end of the 21st century.

Driesen et al. (public doamin)

Stomata, the microscopic pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells on the surfaces of leaves and stems, play an essential role in regulating the gas exchange between a plant and the surrounding atmosphere. Stomatal development and opening are significantly influenced by environmental conditions, both in the short and long term.

Pareek et al (public domain)

Climate change exerts adverse effects on crop production. Plant researchers have therefore focused on the identification of solutions that minimize the negative impacts of climate change on crops.