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Biotechnology: Vaccine technology

Year 10 Science

Australian Academy of Science

Vaccination represents the most successful form of disease prevention available today. In the past 20 years, vaccine technology has improved, resulting in production of vaccines against a broad range of infectious diseases.

History of Vaccines

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Vaccines are responsible for many global public health successes, such as the eradication of smallpox and significant reductions in other serious infections like polio and measles. Even so, vaccinations have also long been the subject of various ethical controversies. The key ethical debates related to vaccine regulation, development, and use generally revolve around (1) mandates, (2) research and testing, (3) informed consent, and (4) access disparities.

Global Health

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The coronavirus pandemic has been unprecedented in its impact, leaving no aspect of life unaffected from its arrival in late 2019. From day-to-day impacts on work, school, social gatherings, and travel, to larger shockwaves to the world’s economy and health care systems, COVID-19 is a once-in-a-lifetime crisis on the global stage.

Science Daily

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A new type of vaccine that can be stored at warmer temperatures, removing the need for refrigeration, has been developed for mosquito-borne virus Chikungunya in a major advance in vaccine technology.

IFPMA

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Vaccines continue to revolutionize our ability to prevent disease and improve health. With every technological advance, we are able to extend the benefits of vaccines to more people and provide better protection from life-threatening infectious disease.

What is Biotechnology?

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Time line of key events in Vaccine therapy 

YouTube

Vaccines work by exploiting the immune system’s memory. Vaccination simulates an infection, training the immune system and enabling it to develop weapons to fight back. This AFP videographic explains how the body fights infection and how vaccination works.

Immunisation is one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. It protects us against diseases that cause death or debilitating illness. The new Gardasil vaccine was co-developed by Professor Ian Frazer. It has nine strains of virus in it which provide effective protection against the viruses that cause cervical cancer. It has been distributed within Australian schools since 2007. As the technology improves, other diseases will be targeted and hopefully eradicated.

Single-use solid micro-dose vaccines are minimally invasive and easy to self administer.

Patients could one day self-administer vaccines using a needleless, pill-sized technology, called the MucoJet, that jet-releases a stream of vaccine inside the mouth, according to a new technology developed at UC Berkeley. Roxanne Makasdjian from Berkeley News talks to Dorian Liepmann, professor of mechanical and bioengineering, about the MucoJet.

The Conversation

Medical experiments involving intentionally infecting people with bacteria, viruses, and parasites are surprisingly common. And they are becoming more common worldwide, particularly in developing countries.

AVN

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The Australian Vaccination-risks Network Inc. (AVN) exists to further a pro-choice position with regard to vaccination and other health decisions

Frontiers in Immonotechnology

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Ever since the development of the first vaccine more than 200 years ago, vaccinations have greatly decreased the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, famously leading to the eradication of small pox and allowing the restriction of diseases such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and measles.

Journal of Infectious Disease

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Technological advances in immunology, protein design, and genetic delivery have unlocked new possibilities for vaccine concepts and delivery technologies that were previously inaccessible.

WHO

Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies

procon.org

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Proponents say that vaccination is safe and one of the greatest health developments of the 20th century. They point out that illnesses, including rubella, diphtheria, smallpox, polio, and whooping cough, are now prevented by vaccination and millions of children’s lives are saved. They contend adverse reactions to vaccines are extremely rare.

ABC News

While most Australian parents vaccinate their children, there's still a minority who don't — but they're not all vehement anti-vaccination activists.